More musings on commuter rail

Earlier this week, I tweeted this:

There are two, largely independent backstories to this tweet. The first is that I’m going back to Helsinki next week to attend the 75th World Science Fiction Convention, and when I was in Helsinki last March and April, I was inspired to write a whole lot on that city’s excellent transit system (see post 1 and post 2). The second reason is the current Commonwealth Ave. overpass reconstruction project in Boston, which was projected to have some deleterious effects on my commute, and which made me take a more serious look at the possibility of taking commuter rail into work — at least for the duration of the construction. I ultimately decided that paying $22.50 a day plus an extra hour and a half of my time was not worth it, given that my car commute is out of peak hours and costs about the same when you factor in parking, tolls, and fuel. But that made me think about the state’s current level of (dis)investment in public transportation infrastructure and what it would take to get me out of the car, on those days when schedule or weather don’t allow for a bike commute (which is more than half the year). I concluded that commuter rail would have to offer sufficiently frequent service, even at the hours I work, and get me from Framingham to Kendall Square in less than 45 minutes — which is not as good as my car commute, 35 minutes parking space to parking space, but is at least in the same ballpark, and if implemented properly would be significantly less variable.

How could you do that, given that the current Framingham-to-South Station run is scheduled to take 49 minutes, and then there’s the Red Line beyond that? The answer, as it turns out, is pretty simple: Electric Multiple Units, or EMUs — a standard passenger rail technology throughout the world, which (when combined with the appropriate investments in track, overhead electrification, and high-level platforms at stations) can significantly reduce travel times by accelerating much faster than conventional locomotive-hauled trains, especially the diesel locomotives currently used throughout the MBTA commuter rail network. Helsinki has such a system (actually the only commuter-rail network in Finland — the rest of the country isn’t dense enough to support it), which clearly demonstrates that a cold climate in a maritime city is no obstacle to successful implementation. Helsinki’s system provides service on multiple lines from the central business district to the airport — a distance similar to my commute — every fifteen minutes. Helsinki uses a customized cold-weather version of the Stadler FLIRT for most of their services, and I know that a number of US transit agencies have ordered FLIRT equipment for their own commuter rail services, so I looked up the performance details and sat down with a simplified line diagram and a calculator to figure out what that service would look like.

The FLIRT is typically configured for a maximum speed of 160 km/h (99 mi/h). At a typical acceleration of 1.02 m/s/s (depending on configuration, this can vary from 0.8 to 1.2 m/s/s) it takes 43.5 seconds and about six tenths of a mile. (Actually, I chose that acceleration value to make it work out to exactly 0.6 mile or 965 m!) I’m assuming that the entire Framingham–Worcester line is rated for 99 mi/h. (It’s not, but remember, we’re what-ifing an investment in better service, and that would involve electrification, trackbed improvements, new platforms, and possibly some grade crossing improvements or eliminations.) I also assume that there’s a “terminal zone” between South Station and the future West Station where speeds are limited by interlocking (junctions with other lines and switching into South Station). I assume that the train can accelerate and decelerate at the same rate, and that this would be done in practice (probably not) just because it makes the math come out easier. Finally, I assume average dwell time at each station is 30 seconds — and since I don’t take the commuter rail right now I don’t know if this is overly optimistic or pessimistic.

So what does this schedule look like? Well, consider, for comparison sake, the current MBTA train 552, which leaves Worcester Union Station at 8:00 AM and arrives at South Station at 9:06, for a scheduled travel time of one hour and six minutes. This train runs express from Worcester to Yawkey, so it only has two station stops aside from the termini — and it creates a huge gap in the schedule for everyone else, because the Framingham–Worcester Line is only two tracks and there’s no way for an express to pass a local train making an intermediate station stop. Now compare that with the following schedule, making all station stops:

Worcester 800
Grafton 804
Westborough 806
Southborough 811
Ashland 813
Framingham 816
West Natick 818
Natick Center 820
Wellesley Square 822
Wellesley Hills 824
Wellesley Farms 826
Auburndale 828
West Newton 829
Newtonville 830
Boston Landing 833
(West Station) 834
Yawkey 836
Back Bay 838
South Station 841

Change ends at South Station and the same trainset leaves for Worcester at 9:00. What’s more, you can start a second trainset at Framingham, also at 8:00, and it gets to South Station at 8:27, so it can become the 8:45 outbound. (In the future, of course, you’ve also converted the Grand Junction branch and it gets Framingham residents a one-seat ride to Kendall in 25 minutes!) Repeat the same pattern every half hour from 6 AM to 11 PM, and you’ve made an enormous improvement in regional mobility and given thousands of people a practical reason to get out of their cars and onto the train. It takes, I think, four trainsets to run this service, not counting spares shared with other lines.

Well, it was a good dream, anyway. We all know that something this useful has absolutely no chance of ever making it through the MBTA bureaucracy or Beacon Hill. Numbers available on request if you want to check my math.

Posted in Transportation | Tagged , | 9 Comments

Administrivia: service interruption

Hi, folks. Just wanted to note that I’ve been blogging less this summer by intention, due to a combination of increased travel, the regular summer bike commute (finally!) and decreased baking (due to increased weight :-( ) Expect regular service to resume some time in September or October. Hopefully some photos from my trip to Worldcon 75 in Helsinki in mid-August will make it up before then.

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“Mycroft’s Delight” Revisited

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I’ve made Diane Duane’s “Mycroft’s Delight” a couple of times in the past (I wrote it up back in January, 2016) but there were some changes I wanted to make — in particular, getting rid of the tropical-oil-laden Nutella used … Continue reading

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Other people’s recipes: Fritz Knipschildt’s Chocolate–Peanut Butter Cookies

I should have gone out for a long bike ride today, but instead I’m writing about some chocolate-chip peanut-butter cookies I made on Saturday. At least that means I’m very nearly caught up with my posting backlog (well, except for Reykjavik). This recipe comes from Danish chocolatier Fritz Knipschildt’s Chocopologie (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2015), co-written with Mary Goodbody. The name of the book comes from Knipschildt’s line of confections and former bakery-cafe in Norwalk, Connecticut, and while all of the recipes either feature chocolate or are intended to accompany chocolate, the book is rather more on the bakery side than confectionery. I’ve made a brownie recipe from this book before, but this is the first of his drop-cookie recipes I’ve tried. He calls them “chocolate–peanut butter cookies” (p. 25), but I’d say “chocolate chip–peanut butter” would be more accurate.

Mise en place
Let’s start as usual with the mise en place. This book is unfortunately one of those that includes only volumetric measurements; I used nutrition labels and Harold McGee to determine measurements by mass for the ingredients where it matters. Clockwise from top left: 85 g of unsalted butter, 128 g of smooth peanut butter, one large egg, ½ cup (120 ml) of vegetable oil, pure vanilla extract (½ tbl is used here), 240 g of all-purpose flour, 120 g of confectioner’s sugar, a 10 oz (280 g) bag of mini semi-sweet chocolate chips, some leaveners, and 120 g of light brown sugar. The small bowl of leaveners contains ½ tsp each of baking powder, baking soda, and salt.

Egg-oil emulsion
While the butter, peanut butter, and sugars are being creamed together in the stand mixer, the egg and oil are whisked together to form an emulsion.

Creamy batter before adding dry ingredients
The egg-oil emulsion is then stirred into the creamed butters and sugars until fully incorporated. The remaining dry ingredients (except chips) are stirred together and then slowly added to the wet ingredients just until fully combined.

Peanut butter batter before folding in chips
Once the peanut-butter dough comes together (and you could stop here and have a pretty decent peanut-butter cookie, or perhaps mix in chopped peanuts to complete the effect), it will be quite stiff. The mini chocolate chips are then folded in by hand with a rubber spatula. Knipschildt calls for 1¾ cups of mini chips, but I figured that a 12 oz bag is usually “2 cups” (whether it actually is or not), so a 10 oz bag like the Ghirardelli chips I was using was probably close enough to the right amount, and this is not a part of the recipe where proportions matter quite so much. At this point I had some other things to do, and packed the dough into a small mixing bowl, covered it with plastic wrap, and left it in the fridge for several hours. The recipe doesn’t call for resting like this, but many cookie doughs benefit from the extra time.

Dough after refrigerating several hours
After resting, the dough is even firmer but yet still rather crumbly. I measured the overall yield of this recipe as 1080 g (perhaps it might even be closer to 1100 g if you don’t taste-test any of the dough while preparing it), which for the stated yield of 22–24 cookies suggests a portion size of about 50 g. I settled on using a #40 disher, which gave me somewhat smaller 45 g portions rather than the 55–60 g portions I got from a #30 disher.

45-gram dough balls, squashed flat, on cookie sheet
Because the dough had been in the refrigerator and was quite stiff, I expected it to be necessary to squash the dough balls by hand before baking — if you just bake the cookies straight off this is probably unnecessary. You can easily fit twelve on a standard cookie sheet, as these cookies don’t spread much. They go in a 350°F (175°C) oven for 12 minutes — mine never got “golden brown” as the recipe calls for, but they were definitely done all the same.

Baked cookies cooling on rack
Fully baked, the cookies don’t look all that different from before baking. They need to cool on the cookie sheet (on a wire rack) for a few minutes to allow the starches to set, otherwise they will fall apart when you try to move them. Once set, they can be transferred to a wire rack.

Full batch of cookies continuing to cool
My overall impression (having eaten a few of these by now) is that they are, like most peanut butter cookies, quite tender, almost shortbread-like in their crumbliness. I would have preferred something a bit more on the moist and chewy side, and with more chocolate flavor (that last defect might be due to short-dated chocolate chips I used). They’re still not bad, and I’ll be bringing them in to work to ensure that I don’t eat them all.


Nutrition Facts
Serving size: 1 cookie (45g before cooking)
Servings per recipe: about 24
Amount per serving
Calories 232 Calories from fat 123
% Daily Value
Total Fat 14​g 21%
 Saturated Fat 5​g 23%
Trans Fat 0​g
Cholesterol 15​mg 5%
Sodium 109​mg 5%
Total Carbohydrate 27​g 9%
 Dietary fiber 2​g 6%
 Sugars 16​g
Proteins 4​g 8%
Vitamin A 2%
Vitamin C 0%
Calcium 1%
Iron 5%
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Other people’s recipes: Claire Ptak’s Rye Chocolate Brownies

Here in my home office, in front of the bookcase to the left of my desk I used to have a very large pile of cookbooks waiting to be scanned for interesting recipes and ultimately shelved in the kitchen bookcase with the other cookbooks. That pile is now down to just four — and that means I have a lot of new(ish) cookbooks that I am slowly starting to search when I’m looking to make something. Among those cookbooks was Claire Ptak’s The Violet Bakery Cookbook (Ten Speed Press, 2015). Ptak is a Californian who now lives and owns a bakery in London, and her cookbook is another entry in the growing list of English cookbooks crossing the pond to North America. This has its good points (yay! more recipes with flour measured by weight!) but also some downsides (hmmm, I don’t have a dish with anything like those dimensions — or, as in yesterday’s recipe for korvapuusti, where TF do I find fresh yeast?!). One of the recipes that immediately intrigued me was “Rye Chocolate Brownies” (p. 153); it’s unusual to see rye used in baked goods aside from bread, and rye bread in this country nearly always has caraway in it, which I hate, so I don’t normally even keep it on hand. In the headnote to this recipe, Ptak credits Chad Robertson of San Francisco’s Tartine with the idea of using rye and chocolate together; Violet’s brownies were originally made with spelt flour.

Mise en place
Of course we always start with a mise en place. Clockwise from bottom left: 300 g of Valrhona Caraïbe, chopped into rough chunks for melting; 150 g of unsalted butter; 50 g of cocoa powder (I used Dutch-process after noting that the recipe does not use baking soda for leavening); 200 g of light brown sugar and 200 g of granulated sugar (Ptak calls for “unrefined” sugar but doesn’t say anywhere what she actually means by that — my view is that sugar is only unrefined when it’s still inside the cane); 200 g whole rye flour; pure vanilla extract (1 tbl is used); 1 tsp salt; ½ tsp baking powder; and four eggs (as close as I could come to the 200 g that is called for with the eggs in my fridge — the recipe calls for “medium” eggs, but I know that egg sizing is not the same in Britain and the US).

Chocolate and butter melting in double boiler
The recipe proceeds along familiar lines, if you followed my “Browniefest” series from a couple of years ago; I forget what I called this particular method back then, but it’s a lot like making a genoise, except much denser (and without the careful folding). Numerous brownie recipes follow this same procedure, starting with melting the fats (chocolate and butter) together in a double boiler or microwave. I used the double boiler in this case, just because it’s a bit slower and easier to monitor. The melted fats should be allowed to cool a bit before they are used.

Dry ingredient mixture
All the dry ingredients (rye flour, salt, cocoa powder, baking powder) are just whisked together until well mixed.

Egg foam
The eggs, sugars, and vanilla are whipped together in a stand mixer until the mixture is light in color and has expanded significantly in volume. The melted chocolate-butter mixture is then drizzled in, with the mixer running, followed by the dry ingredients, mixed just until they are combined. I’d actually suggest taking this off the mixer and folding in the dry ingredients by hand, although it’s not what Ptak calls for, nor what I did this time, just because it’s a lot easier to ensure you don’t overmix the batter that way.

Brownie batter in mixer
The finished batter is quite viscous and sticky. Ptak says to pour it into a prepared, parchment-lined 8×12 baking pan — I suppose 20×30 cm may be a common size in English kitchens, but I don’t have anything like that. The closest I could come is a quarter-sheet pan, which is just about eight inches wide, but enough longer than a foot that I was a bit uncertain whether it would work or not. (Of course, the standard baking pans for brownies and other bar cookies on this side of the pond are 8×8, 9×9, and 9×13 inches — the 9×13 is very close to the volume of two 8×8 pans, so it’s common to halve or double recipes intended for these pans.)

Brownie batter in a parchment-lined quarter-sheet pan
As we all know, the thing these days is putting salty and sweet together. After spreading the rather stiff batter onto the parchment (while holding the parchment to keep it from sliding around the pan!), a teaspoon of Maldon sea salt is sprinkled over the top and the brownies are baked in a 355°F (180°C) oven for 20–25 minutes. I took mine out after 21 minutes, but they probably could have stood the whole 25. (And 5 F° is really excess precision; your typical home oven is unlikely to maintain better than a 25 F° range of the set point; many are much much worse.)

Finished pan of brownies cooling on rack
After baking, the brownies must sit in the pan on a wire rack until completely cool. I made sure there was a bit of parchment overhanging one side to ease depanning.

Brownies after portioning
Using the parchment “sling” helps to avoid a multi-flip extraction, which keeps the crinkly surface from being crushed. This recipe — unlike nearly every other brownie recipe I’ve ever tried — actually calls for reasonable (bakery-size) portions, with a specified yield of twelve. That’s vastly easier to achieve than the 18 or 24 brownies many recipes allegedly get from a 9×13 pan, so even before trying one, this recipe rises above my expectations. When passing brownies around at work, however, I found it useful to cut these portions in half, because some people look at a normal bakery serving of brownie and think “I couldn’t possibly eat that much”. (Perhaps that’s how they stay so thin. If that’s the price you have to pay, I’d rather eat brownies, thanks.)

Close-up of single brownie
Seriously. Who can say “no” to that, who is of sound mind and not gluten-intolerant or vegan? These brownies are amazing, and everyone at work loved them, even the salt-hater (after she carefully brushed the Maldon flakes off the top of her serving). This recipe is at least as good as my previous favorite, King Arthur Flour’s whole-wheat double-chocolate brownies, with fewer ingredients and an easier prep.

Single brownie, edge on


Nutrition Facts
Serving size: 2⅔″×3″ rectangle
Servings per recipe: 12
Amount per serving
Calories 461 Calories from fat 202
% Daily Value
Total Fat 23​g 35%
 Saturated Fat 14​g 68%
Trans Fat 0​g
Cholesterol 82​mg 27%
Sodium 428​mg 18%
Total Carbohydrate 49​g 20%
 Dietary fiber 8​g 31%
 Sugars 31​g
Proteins 7​g 15%
Vitamin A 8%
Vitamin C 0%
Calcium 4%
Iron 7%
Posted in Food | Tagged , , , , | 1 Comment

Other people’s recipes: Korvapuusti

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Those of you who follow this blog for the recipe walkthroughs are in luck, because I’m finally getting some more new recipes done. This first one was done back in April, after I got home from my trip to Finland, … Continue reading

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A day trip to Turku

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This is nearly the final post about my March–April, 2017, trip to Finland. I should have some Reykjavik pictures to post, if I can find the time and energy to edit them all (and remember what they were), but this … Continue reading

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Interlude: a better way of choosing presidential electors?

In a bitterly contested U.S. presidential election, like the one last year, the question often comes up about the perceived unfairness of the Electoral College, the system of indirect democracy we use for electing presidents. Every state is entitled to choose a number of electors equal to its combined representation in the House of Representatives and the Senate — this has the effect of giving voters in small states approximately three times the voting power of voters in California. There are, on the other hand, many many more people in California, so maybe it balances out.

If you actually believe in democracy, you probably think the chief executive ought to be chosen by direct election — preferably using a ranked-choice voting system like STV (Single Transferable Vote). But to enact such a change would require a constitutional amendment, and the small states — those with artificially boosted representation in the Electoral College — have a double veto on such changes, due to the requirement of a supermajority of both the Senate and the 50 state legislatures. So people have looked at alternative ways of choosing electors that wouldn’t require a constitutional amendment. One such is the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact, which — if adopted by states representing at least 270 electoral votes and assuming no faithless electors — would give the presidency to the winner of the popular vote by voting a majority of electors for whoever that was. Currently, the NPV compact is still far from its goal of a majority of electoral college seats — unsurprisingly, the large states have ratified the compact and the small states mostly haven’t. It highlights the sort of collective-action problem inherent in fixing presidential voting: if the legislature of a member state saw partisan advantage in switching their vote, they could simply do so, by ordinary state law, and leave everyone else in the lurch.

Naturally, the question arises over whether it would be possible to have everyone’s votes count while maintaining the unfair advantage of the small states. One way to do this — which would also require collective action, since it doesn’t benefit the large states to enact it if the small states refuse to go along — would be apportion each state’s electors in accordance with the popular vote in that state. There are ways to do this which would be tolerably democratic, and there are ways to do it which are very undemocratic:

  1. You could randomly assign every voter to an “electoral district”, and give the winner of each district one elector. This only works if it’s truly random, and would be difficult to implement given how elections are implemented in most states (it’s assumed that everyone at the same polling place gets the same ballot).
  2. You could use any of a number of proportional representation systems to assign electors to candidates.
  3. You could do what Maine and Nebraska do already, and have separate electors for each Congressional District plus two at-large electors who, like Senators, represent the state-wide winner.

It should be clear that, so long as gerrymandering is permitted, option 3 is Very Bad: essentially it means that whoever controls the state legislature determines the outcome of the presidential election, but with a veneer of democracy that hides the essential corruptness of the system. Better for the legislature to just decide who the state will be voting for, as in the Old Days. So I’m focusing on option 2.

One of the common ways of apportioning representatives in a system of proportional representation is a system called the “d’Hondt Count”. It’s mathematically equivalent to what is known as “Jefferson’s method”, which Thomas Jefferson used to propose the (ultimately enacted) first apportionment of Congress after the 1790 Census. It’s not the system used for Congressional apportionment today (called the “method of equal proportions”) but it is popular around the world for legislative elections. I implemented a script that takes as input a CSV file with the state-by-state popular vote in a presidential election and outputs the results of apportioning the electors using this method. With a small modification, it’s possible to subtract out the “small state bonus” (two electors per state), and see whether that actually has an impact on the outcome or not. I then created data files representing the popular vote from the last five presidential elections (using a variety of sources), to see how things would have turned out if we had done it this way (source and data files on Github).

Year Method Outcome
2000 Actual outcome After a long court battle, ending in the Supreme Court, George W. Bush is declared the winner in Florida and therefore the presidency.
Bush/Cheney 271, Gore/Lieberman 266
d’Hondt Count Even assuming the post-Bush v. Gore tally in Florida, no candidate receives a majority; Bush wins the House of Representatives 28–17 with four delegations tied. The Senate being tied 50–50, outgoing vice president Al Gore could have cast the tie-breaking vote for his running-mate and Senate colleague Joe Lieberman.
Bush/Cheney 267, Gore/Lieberman 268, Nader/LaDuke 3
d’Hondt without bonus
(219 to win)
No difference in the outcome.
Bush/Cheney 217, Gore/Lieberman 216, Nader/LaDuke 3
2004 Actual outcome Bush/Cheney 286, Kerry/Edwards 251
d’Hondt Count Bush/Cheney 280, Kerry/Edwards 258
d’Hondt without bonus Bush/Cheney 227, Kerry/Edwards 209
2008 Actual outcome Obama/Biden 365, McCain/Palin 173
d’Hondt Count Obama/Biden 289, McCain/Palin 249
d’Hondt without bonus Obama/Biden 236, McCain/Palin 200
2012 Actual outcome Obama/Biden 332, Romney/Ryan 206
d’Hondt Count Obama/Biden 274, Romney/Ryan 264
d’Hondt without bonus Obama/Biden 225, Romney/Ryan 211
2016 Actual outcome Trump/Pence 304, Clinton/Kaine 227, Sanders/Warren 1, Kasich/Fiorina 1, Paul/Pence 1, Powell/Cantwell 1, Powell/Collins 1, Powell/Warren 1, Spotted Eagle/LaDuke 1
d’Hondt Count No candidate receives a majority, and the presidency is decided by the House of Representatives 33–16–1 for Trump. Three faithless electors for third-party candidates could give either candidate 270 EV and an outright win. (The Senate votes 52–48 for Vice President Pence.)
Clinton/Kaine 267, Trump/Pence 267, Johnson/Weld 2, Stein/Baraka 1, McMullin/Finn 1
d’Hondt without bonus No change in outcome.
Clinton/Kaine 218, Trump/Pence 214, Johnson/Weld 2, Stein/Baraka 1, McMullin/Finn 1

You’ll notice that only in the hotly contested 2000 and 2016 elections would third-party candidates have received electors under this scheme. We can recompute the assignment of electors without third-party candidates, and it turns out that the results are indeed different. In 2016, without the third-party vote, but with the current “small state bonus”, Trump and Pence win a bare majority (270 EV); if the bonus is removed, Clinton and Kaine win a two-EV majority (220 EV to 216 EV). In 2000 with the third-party vote removed, the “no bonus” scenario sends the election to the House, but the current-law scenario gives a bare majority to Gore and Lieberman.

In the title of this piece, I questioned whether this would be a better way to choose electors. Having actually worked out the results in a number of important recent cases, I have to conclude that it would not be a significant improvement over the existing system, and that we are better off demanding a true popular vote (hopefully by preference voting). About the only positive thing I can say about doing it the way I’m suggesting above is that it would make it much more clear that nearly all of the country is actually some shade of “purple” — run the scripts and you’ll see just how few states give all of their electors to a single candidate when they are allocated proportionally.

I would gladly accept data files from additional presidential elections by Github pull request.

Posted in Law & Society | Tagged , | 3 Comments

Some Helsinki architecture

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OK, this is the last post about Helsinki, seriously. Well, until August, because I’m going back there for the 75th World Science Fiction Convention. But for now, this is it. I have one more post from my day-trip to Turku, … Continue reading

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Every American transportation planner should spend a week in Helsinki (part 3 of 3)

As I mentioned in part 1, Helsinki has trams, or as we’d say in American English, streetcars. (I try to avoid the “t” word — “trolley” — since to so many people that now means a diesel bus with goofy bodywork, whereas “streetcar” is unambiguous, I hope.) Actual street-running light rail vehicles, in an old, congested central business district with narrow, winding cobblestone streets, hills, and salt water. And yet still has room for cars and on-street parking, not to mention buses, a single-line subway, and all those commuter trains I described in part 2. This post will hit some of the highlights, although I did not ride most of the lines and saw the termini of only three (the 9 in Pasila, the 7B at Senate Square, and the 6 outside my hotel in Hietalahti). I’m also going to include some other bits of Helsinki transportation that don’t have a whole post to themselves, including bike and pedestrian infrastructure, which I didn’t take nearly enough photos of. I also didn’t have time to visit the tram museum in Töölö. Given another week to spend, I would have taken all of the tram routes, spent more time on the Metro, and visited some of the outlying suburbs by bus and commuter rail — but this trip was expensive enough and thoroughly exhausting, so I was ready to head back home by day 9. One more Helsinki post after this one will wrap things up with some architecture, and then I’ll have some more architecture from my day-trip to Turku — and finally after all that, I’ll close with some photos of my not-quite-a-day in Reykjavik on the way out, if I can remember what any of the pictures were.

The photos below were taken over several days, and I mostly was not setting out to document the tram system in any great detail — there are several photos that I find I should have taken but didn’t — so you will probably have an easier time following if you open up the geographically accurate tram network map in another window while you page through the photos.

On this trip, I stayed at the Radisson BLU Seaside hotel in Hietalahti, on the working part of Helsinki’s waterfront. This video monitor in the hotel lobby tells guests when the next 6/6T (outside the front door) and 9 (about 100 m up the street) trams will depart for the CBD. When it’s running, the 6 tram loops here and waits for a scheduled departure; the 6T and 9 routes come up from Länsiterminaali (Western Terminal), one of several ferry and cruise terminals on the waterfront. Westbound trams are not shown.

On my daily trips up to Hartwall Arena to see the World Figure Skating Championships, I would usually catch the 6 or the 9 to Helsinki Central Railway Station and then the commuter rail for the five-minute trip up to Pasila. One day when I had plenty of time, I took the 9 tram — which goes to the same place — all the way; it takes about 45 minutes, about 15 minutes longer for the one-seat ride, which is long enough that many people would probably choose to transfer. (However, if you are paying a cash fare, it’s cheaper to stay on the tram, because a tram-only ticket costs less than an all-mode Helsinki city zone ticket.)

On Kaivokatu in front of Helsinki Central Railway Station, numerous tram routes stop for transfers to the Metro, commuter rail, and long-distance trains. Even late in the evening, tram service is frequent (although most routes stop at 23:30). This is the westbound platform; a similar monitor on the opposite side shows eastbound arrivals (including the 5 route, which loops here and does not serve the westbound platform).

Helsinki has several generations of streetcars (trams) in operation. This one, number 114, is operating on the 6T (Länsiterminaali–Arabia) route, and has a full-wrap advertisement for Viking Line cruises. The 6T route operates limited hours to serve arriving cruise ships at Helsinki’s West Harbor, as an extension to the 6 (Hietalahti–Arabia) route, supplenting the 9 (Länsiterminaali–Pasila) which runs all day.

In this close-up you can see the older style destination sign and double-wide entry doors. Not also the HKL logo to the left of the doors, indicating that this tram is operated by HKL (Helsingin kaupungin liikenne, Helsinki City Transport) — as indeed are all Helsinki trams. The HSL logo on the front of the tram indicates that HSL tickets and travel cards are accepted.

An even older tram, number 59, serves the 2 (Olympiaterminaali–Nordenskiöldenkatu) route as it passes Railway Square. The stairwells on either side of the tram tracks lead down to the concourse of Rautatientori Metro station.

A new quadruple-articulated tram, number 234, is working route 2 in the opposite direction as it approaches Rautatieasema station. This is a low-floor tram, designed for boarding at the center doors, and as a result has much narrower front door. All Helsinki trams are single-ended, with doors only on the right-hand side.

The tram network is supplemented by a variety of local, trunk, and express bus routes, operated by private bus companies under tender to HSL. This bus is operated by Pohjolan Liikenne, a subsidiary of the state-owned railway operator VR Group. The building in the background is Helsinki Central Railway Station; the cobbles in the foreground are typical of both road paving and market squares in Helsinki’s CBD.

Helsinki is a fairly bike-friendly city, despite the prevalence of cobblestone streets and sidewalks. To provide a more bike-compatible surface in the CBD, cycletracks like these are paved with bituminous concrete (asphalt), and frequently provided with supplemental traffic signals as well.

Helsinki’s modern trams are all equipped with pantographs, but the overhead electric supply still uses trolley wire. I’m not sure if there is a technical reason for this, but it is definitely less visually obtrusive than catenary, which is a plus in an old, congested city where trams are largely street-running.

The 2 and 9 trams continue straight (left to right) across Mannerheimintie. The 4, 7A, and 10 trams continue across Kaivokatu from top to bottom. The 3, 5, and 6 trams turn right from Mannerheimintie onto Kaivokatu to serve Railway Square, to the left. All routes except for the 5 also run in the other direction; for the 5, the train station is the end of the line, and so it loops.

One of the new quadruple-articulated trams, operating on the 5 route, makes the right turn onto Kaivokatu from Mannerheimintie. On the opposite corner is a shopping center called “Forum”.

Pedestrians cross Mannerheimintie heading towards the tram stop, where an older double-articulated tram serves route 10. This is the closest stop to Helsinki Central Station on the 4, 7, and 10 routes. A traffic signal for bikes is mounted low on a pole at right; in the distance, the parliament building is being renovated. Although it’s hard to see in this photo, the cobblestones alternate grey and white at the pedestrian crossing (also indicated with pole-mounted signals).

The “Forum” shopping center occupies a large building on the corner of Simonkatu and Mannerheimintie — an ideal location to serve the train station and eight busy tram routes. As is common for many commercial buildings in Finland, signs on the exterior indicate the names of the tenants without regard to where on the inside they happen to be — in this case, a variety of Finnish, pan-European, and global brands.

My time in Helsinki coincided with the early-voting period for the 2017 municipal elections (held at the same time across the country). Most changeable outdoor advertising in the CBD was given over to electioneering, like the card on the side of this tram advertising the Green Alliance (Vihreät/De Gröna). Not to be outdone, another party has bought a card on the rear section of the same tram (I can’t read which one). The newer trams have video monitors which were also showing a variety of electoral advertisements in rotation with a “Helsinki has new trams” house ad.

The median of Mannerheimintie is one of the few places in the Helsinki CBD where trams have a dedicated right-of-way. From front to back, the cobbled sidewalk, concrete cycletrack, cobbled northbound roadway, median, paved concrete trackbed for the trams, more median, southbound roadway, concrete cycletrack, pile of snow, cobbled sidewalk, and another entrance to the “Forum” shopping center. A new tram approaches the crosswalk from the left. The building at right houses the offices of Hufvudstadsbladet, the principal Swedish-language newspaper.

A 5 tram comes up Aleksanterinkatu past the flagship Stockmann department store. From here it will turn right onto Mannerheimintie (behind me). I believe this section of the street is reserved for trams and pedestrians only. The same two political parties bought advertising on this tram. (The Greens did well in the 2017 municipal elections, picking up seats nationwide.)

This switch would allow trams heading west on Aleksanterinkatu to turn south (left) on Mannerheimintie, but the currently operating tram routes all turn north (right) instead.

Still on Mannerheimintie, this southbound 10 tram is serving Ylioppilastalo. This model of tram has a small low-floor section between the two articulations, and two people with strollers are trying to maneuver. Just south of here, the 3 and 6 routes will turn west down Bulevardi while the 10 continues straight three more blocks to its terminus.

I caught this bicycle traffic signal doing a Euro-style red+yellow “get into gear because green’s coming soon” cycle. It’s on Bulevardi, I believe at Frederikinkatu. The bicycle symbol is permanently illuminated. You can also see a regular traffic signal, across the street at left, and a pedestrian signal at far right.

On its way toward Senate Square, a new quadruple-articulated tram heads south on Snellmaninkatu, just passing Säätytalo (House of the Estates) after stopping a block north at the National Archives.

A little bit farther north on Snellmaninkatu, the cobbled pedestrian crossing is a a bit more visible here. Note also how the tram tracks swing from a curbside stop (on both sides of the street) towards the centerline to make room for parking.

A close-up of the trolley wire hanging over Snellmaninkatu

The 9 route is served with newer double-articulated trams like this one; this photo shows one serving Kaisaniemenpuisto, not far from the University of Helsinki. Two tram routes join nearby with a full wye in the center island of a roundabout, while car traffic is routed around the long way.. The tram tracks here are in a broad median on Kaisaniemenkatu. As these are single-ended trams, there are no doors on this side, affording a large low-floor wheelchair and stroller docking area.

The HKL logo on the side of the tram indicates that these vehicles are owned and operated by Helsinki City Transport Agency.

Another view of the new quadruple-articulated trams. The modern driver’s console includes video monitors showing not only the interior of the vehicle, but also the door side of the tram, allowing the driver to confirm when all passengers are loaded. The tram platforms are at floor level, but a “wheelchair” button will cause a bridge plate to extend automatically for boarding or alighting without driver assistance.

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